GLASS PRODUCTION PROCESS
Some historians claim that it was the Crusaders who brought glass art to Venice from the East, while others, after some archaeological discoveries on the islands of Murano and Torcello, established that this art already existed in the 7th century BC. Probably this was due to the moving to the lagoon of people coming from Adria, where they learnt the glass technique. However, it was in the 12th century that glass processing became an organized manufacturing activity and in 1291 with the edict promulgated by Doge Tiepolo all the furnaces in the historic centre of Venice were transferred to the lagoon island of Murano to reduce the risk of fire in the city. In this way, the Serenissima could have a greater control over furnaces and their glassmakers and could avoid that the secrets of this art would be exported outside its borders.
The ancient Amurianum became a real industrial area and soon the capital of the world glass production. The glass art in Murano was jealously defended by very strict rules. The glassmakers had to keep the absolute secret on the techniques used and it was strictly forbidden to import foreign glasses. In addition, this profession was protected by sanctions that prohibited the practicing to those who were not registered to the art and to those who wanted to move abroad. The punishment was the imprisonment of their family members or even death.